Lisa Humphreys will take over from the interim chief executive, Andrew Bunyan, in September. Bunyan was appointed following the retirement of Nicola Clemo, who had led the trust since its creation, in April.
Humphreys is currently interim director of children's services at Wokingham Council. She was also assistant director of children's social care for Lambeth Council, and prior to that, a social work manager in Hampshire.
Last year she was one of three social workers from Hampshire Council cleared of wrongdoing by the Health and Care Professions Council in relation to concerns raised by a judge in November 2015.
During its most recent monitoring visit by Ofsted, inspectors said a lack of supervision and oversight of social work meant that children's services leaders cannot be certain that all children are receiving good support. There were also found to be delays in taking action when children were at risk.
Robert Tapsfield, chairman of Slough Children's Services Trust, said Humphreys has "excellent leadership skills and substantial experience of improving children's services".
"I am delighted that Lisa will be joining the trust," he said.
"Slough Children's Services Trust is committed to improving services for children and families in Slough and Lisa is the right person to be leading us on the next stage of our journey."
Humphreys said: "It is an absolute privilege to step into the role of chief executive for Slough Children's Services Trust. It is such a fantastic opportunity to work towards improving outcomes for the children and families of the borough.
"I am really looking forward to taking on the challenge of leading the Trust and pleased to be working with the many talented individuals and committed staff whose hard work on the improvement journey has been so impressive.
"For my part I bring a whole range of skills and experience which I anticipate will be essential in the complex task of changing and improving children's social care and services for children in Slough."