Professor Carolyn Hamilton, director of research and international programmes at Coram Children's Legal Centre, has been made Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE).
Wayne Bulpitt, former UK chief commissioner of the Scout Association, has been awarded a CBE for his service to young people in the Scout movement.
And Gregory Wood, chair of the NSPCC, has been awarded a CBE for services to children and young people.
Meanwhile, the chief executive of youth advice charity Adviza, Katharine Horler, has been awarded an OBE for outstanding commitment to improving the lives of others.
Others honoured include people working in schools, colleges and universities, as well as foster carers and children's social workers.
Jonathan Slater, permanent secretary at the Department for Education, said: "I would like to congratulate everyone recognised in the Queen's Birthday Honours list.
"These are extraordinary people, whose achievements improve the lives of children, young people and adults through excellent care and education, and promoting equality and diversity for all."
Coram Children's Legal Centre said Professor Hamilton has been "a consummate, unwavering advocate on a wide range of issues affecting children and young people".
Hamilton said: "Children's rights have been a matter of great interest to me both personally and professionally, and it has been a great pleasure to pursue a career in such a rewarding field with dedicated colleagues.
"Coram Children's Legal Centre protects and promotes children's rights both in the UK and abroad, and I hope we will continue to have many opportunities to do so."